- Leipzig , Deutschland
Bei der Gründung der DDR 1949 war Brigitte Reimann 16 Jahre alt. Nach dem Abitur arbeitete sie 1951 erst als Lehrerin. 1955 begann ihrer schriftstellerische Tätigkeit, die sie zunächst ganz enthusiastisch in den Dienst am Aufbau des Sozialismus stellte. Mit ihrer Erzählung "Ankunft im Alltag" 1961 wurde sie als Vorreiterin einer neuen Literaturströmung, der sogenannten "Ankunftsliteratur" gefeiert. Aber sie rieb sich an der Engstirnigkeit und dem Dogmatismus vieler Funktionäre, war erschrocken über die Militarisierung der Gesellschaft und endgültig abgestoßen durch die Niederschlagung des Prager Frühlings im August 1968. Das Zusammenleben im real existierenden Sozialismus wollte sie an menschlichen Bedürfnissen orientiert wissen. Aus ihrer Geburtsstadt Burg (bei Magdeburg) war sie 1960 nach Hoyerswerda und von dort 1968 nach Neubrandenburg gezogen, wo sie sich ganz ihrem Hauptwerk "Franziska Linkerhand" widmete. 1973 verstarb sie an Krebs.
- Neubrandenburg , Germany undefined
Bogdan Radica was born on 26 August 1904, in Split. He was a writer, publicist, journalist and historian and one of the most prominent Croatian emigrants after 1945. After he finished classical gymnasium in Split, he attended studies at Ljubljana University (1923-1924). He left for Florence where he continued studying history and law. His first job position was in Paris in 1928, where he was a reporter for Obzor, a daily Zagreb newspaper. The following year he became the pressman for the Belgrade Avala. In 1930, he went to Athena as an emissary for the press at the Royal Embassy of Yugoslavia. He was also active as a member of the PEN Club and when he came to Geneva as a member of the Yugoslav delegation at the League of Nations (1934-1939). After the foundation of Banovina Hrvatska in 1939, he settled in Belgrade, where he worked at the State Office for the Foreign press. At the end of 1940, he relocated to Washington and since 1941 worked in the press bureau of the Kingdom Yugoslavia in New York. At that time, he also started writing for the American press. The reason why he had moved to the USA was his book Agonija Evrope, printed in Belgrade in 1940, which was very critical of national socialism and fascism. Morover, his family ties with Guglielmo Ferrero, who was a dissident of Mussolini's regime, caused a diplomatic pression from Germany and Italy on Yugoslavia which finally caused his his departure to the United States.
In distancing himself from the Yugoslav Government, which was placed in exile, he advocated for the Partisan movement. He collaborated with the movement for the purpose of gaining recognition of Tito as the Allies' only partner in Yugoslavia. Immediately after the end of the war, he came back to Belgrade where he worked a time in the Ministry of Information. After travelling to Zagreb and Split, disappointed with the consequences of communist revolution in Croatia and Yugoslavia, he decided to settle permanently in the USA, as an intellectual with bourgeois views. In his writings, he expressed his opposition against the communist rule, and also Yugoslavia as a state, becoming after the war a defender of the idea of Croatian statehood. Politically, he favoured the Croatian Peasant Party, and in his articles in the American press he shared his experience of living in Communist Yugoslavia. He was attacked by Yugoslav Communist authorities, President Tito and his minister of Internal Affairs Aleksandar Ranković on account of his writings. Before a committee of the American Senate in 1947, he gave a lecture on the Yugoslav brand of communism, insisting that the US not send aid to the regime.
Due to his previous ties with the communist regime in Yugoslavia during and after the war, he received American citizenship as late as 1957. He worked as professor of modern European history from 1950 to 1974 at Fairleigh University in New Jersey. During the years, he became a fruitful publicist in the diaspora press, especially in Hrvatski glas and Hrvatska revija, for which he wrote dozens of articles on cultural and political issues. Some of the diaspora newspapers in which he was involved were: Nova Hrvatska, Journal of Croatian Studies, Slobodna riječ, Danica, Hrvatski dom and many others. He also wrote a large number of essays and articles in American reviews and newspapers on various topics concerning Yugoslavia and communism, such as The New Leader, The New Republic, Chicago Tribune, The American Mercury, The Reader's Digest, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, The Commentary, The Freeman, The Challenge, Journal of Central European Affairs and others.
The author had a great number of essays and several books, among which were Sredozemni povratak (1971), Hrvatska 1945 (1974) and Živjeti nedoživjeti - Uspomene hrvatskog intelektualca kroz moralnu i ideološku krizu Zapada (Knjiga I, 1982; Knjiga II, 1984). All of these books were forbidden under the communist regime, as they had criticized the Yugoslav political and social system. During his life in exile, he liaised with many outstanding Croatian political emigrants (Vinko Nikolić, Jure Petričević, Bruno Bušić, Mirko Vidović, Nikola Čolak, Ante Kadić, Jakša Kušan, Zlatko Markus), and also with dissidents from Croatia and Yugoslavia (Franjo Tuđman, Milovan Đilas, Mihajlo Mihajlov). On a number of occasions, he participated in TV discussions on Yugoslavia and at the meetings of American historians. He was a member of a number of international organizations such as: The International PEN Club, The International League for Human Rights, The Comittee for the Free World, Liberal International and others. He was also an active member of the Croatia Academy of America, Hrvatsko narodno vijeće (Croatian National Council) and the Committee to Aid Democratic Dissidents in Yugoslavia. After 1945, Radica visited Croatia for the first time in July, 1990. President Tuđman appointed him to a commission for the new, democratic Constitution of Republic of Croatia. At the time of Yugoslav crisis, he defended a peaceful solution and the creation of the independent Croatian state. He died at 89 on 3 December 1993 at St.Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center in Manhattan, New York City.
- Budapest, Hungary
Radojević’s field of interest is very broad. He has written poems, prose, and literary criticism. He has made special contributions to the Montenegristics, a recently founded scientific discipline examining Montenegro and its inhabitants from different linguistic, archaeological, historical, ethnological, economic, political, and cultural perspectives. He has been published in numerous newspapers and journals throughout the former Yugoslavia in addition to his eighteen books.
Radojević is a member of the Montenegrin PEN Centre, the Montenegrin Society of Independent Writers, Matica crnogorska (a cultural institution which promotes Montenegrin national and cultural identity and language), and the Doclean Academy of Sciences and Arts (a parallel scholars’ academy created in 1998 by academics who considered the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts to be dominated by Serbian nationalism).
During the communist period, Danilo Radojević was designed by the authorities as a Montenegrin nationalist and separatist because he published works discussing the particularities of Montenegrin culture, language, and identity. In 1972, he was officially banned from publishing in Montenegro, though he had found it practically impossible to publish even before the ban. Instead, he presented his views in some Croatian journals, which were also then soon to be declared nationalist.
Danilo Radojević was also listed in the White Book of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Montenegro. The White Book [Bijela knjiga] is a 24-page document, published from 1972, in which the League of Communists of Montenegro attempted to harmonize its activities with the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, following the 1972 arrest of Croatian writers and scientists accused of being members of the Croatian Spring. Danilo Radojević’s name was listed among the first group of nine authors who were strictly prohibited from speaking in public. Others include Danilo’s brother Radoje Radojević, considered to be one of the founders of the science of Montenegrin language and literature, and Vojislav Nikčević, best known for his work on promoting Montenegrin as a distinct language from Serbian.